Amir Chaudhry

thoughts, comments & general ramblings

Writing Planet in pure OCaml

I've been learning OCaml for some time now but not really had a problem that I wanted to solve. As such, my progress has been rather slow and sporadic and I only make time for exercises when I'm travelling. In order to focus my learning, I have to identify and tackle something specific. That's usually the best way to advance and I recently found something I can work on.

As I've been trying to write more blog posts, I want to be able to keep as much content on my own site as possible and syndicate my posts out to other sites I run. Put simply, I want to be able to take multiple feeds from different sources and merge them into one feed, which will be served from some other site. In addition, I also want to render that feed as HTML on a webpage. All of this has to remain within the OCaml toolchain so it can be used as part of Mirage (i.e. I can use it when building unikernels).

What I'm describing might sound familiar and there's a well-known tool that does this called Planet. It's a 'river of news' feed reader, which aggregates feeds and can display posts on webpages and you can find the original Planet and it's successor Venus, both written in Python. However, Venus seems to be unmaintained as there are a number of unresolved issues and pull requests, which have been languishing for quite some time with no discussion. There does appear to be a more active Ruby implementation called Pluto, with recent commits and no reported issues.

Benefits of a Planet in pure OCaml

Although I could use the one of the above options, it would be much more useful to keep everything within the OCaml ecosystem. This way I can make the best use of the unikernel approach with Mirage (i.e lean, single-purpose appliances). Obviously, the existing options don't lend themselves to this approach and there are known bugs as a lot has changed on the web since Planet Venus (e.g the adoption of HTML5). Having said that, I can learn a lot from the existing implementations and I'm glad I'm not embarking into completely uncharted territory.

In addition, the OCaml version doesn't need to (and shouldn't) be written as one monolithic library. Instead, pulling together a collection of smaller, reusable libraries that present clear interfaces to each other would make things much more maintainable. This would bring substantially greater benefits to everyone and OPAM can manage the dependencies.

Breaking down the problem

The first cut is somewhat straightforward as we have a piece that deals with the consumption and manipulation of feeds and another that takes the result and emits HTML. This is also how the original Planet is put together, with a library called feedparser and another for templating pages.

For the feed-parsing aspect, I can break it down further by considering Atom and RSS feeds separately and then even further by thinking about how to (1) consume such feeds and (2) output them. Then there is the HTML component, where it may be necessary to consider existing representations of HTML. These are not new ideas and since I'm claiming that individual pieces might be useful then it's worth finding out which ones are already available.

Existing components

The easiest way to find existing libraries is via the OPAM package list. Some quick searches for RSS, XML, HTML and net bring up a lot of packages. The most relevant of these seem to be xmlm, ocamlrss, cow and maybe xmldiff. I noticed that nothing appears, when searching for Atom, but I do know that cow has an Atom module for creating feeds. In terms of turning feeds into pages and HTML, I'm aware of rss2html used on the OCaml website and parts of ocamlnet that may be relevant (e.g nethtml and netstring) as well as cow. There is likely to be other code I'm missing but this is useful as a first pass.

Overall, a number of components are already out there but it's not obvious if they're compatible (e.g html) and there are still gaps (e.g atom). Since I also want to minimise dependencies, I'll try and use whatever works but may ultimately have to roll my own. Either way, I can learn from what already exists. Perhaps I'm being overconfident but if I can break things down sensibly and keep the scope constrained then this should be an achievable project.

The first (baby) steps - an Atom parser

As this is an exercise for me to learn OCaml by solving a problem, I need to break it down into bite-size pieces and take each one at a time. Practically speaking, this means limiting the scope to be as narrow as possible while still producing a useful result for me. That last part is important as I have specific needs and it's likely that the first thing I make won't be particularly interesting for many others.

For my specific use-case, I'm only interested in dealing with Atom feeds as that's what I use on my site and others I'm involved with. Initial feedback is that creating an Atom parser will be the bulk of the work and I should start by defining the types. To keep this manageable, I'm only going to deal with my own feeds instead of attempting a fully compliant parser (in other words, I'll only consider the subset of RFC4287 that's relevant to me). Once I can parse, merge and write such feeds I should be able to iterate from there.

To make my requirements more concrete:

  • Only consider my own Atom feeds for now
  • Initially, be able to parse and emit just one Atom feed
  • Then be able to merge 2+ feeds, specifically:
    • Use tag-based feeds from my personal site as starting points
    • Be able to de-dupe content
  • No database or storage (construct it afresh every time)
  • Minimise library dependencies

Timeframes and workflow

I've honestly no idea how long this might take and I'm treating it as a side-project. I know there are many people out there who could produce a working version of everything in a week or two but I'm not one of them (yet). There are also a lot of ancillary things I need to learn on the way, like packaging, improving my knowledge of Git and dealing with build systems. If I had to put a vague time frame on this, I'd be thinking in months rather than weeks. It might even be the case that others start work on parts of this and ship things sooner but that's great as I'll probably be able to use whatever they create and move further along the chain.

In terms of workflow, everything will be done in the open, warts and all, and I expect to make embarrassing mistakes as I go. You can follow along on my freshly created OCaml Atom repo, and I'll be using the issue tracker as the main way of dealing with bugs and features. Let the fun begin.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Daniel, Ashish, Christophe, Philippe and Thomas for discussions on an earlier draft of this post and providing feedback on my approach.